Brands in this issue include: Benetton (commits to 100% sustainable cotton), Legg-A-Licious (fined for child labour violations), Levi Strauss Foundation (support for vulnerable communities), LVMH (joins ZDHC), Neiman Marcus and H&M (getting into used clothes), Maria Stanley (made ethically in India), Nike (faces backlash over “purpose”), Primark (site of Extinction Rebellion “die-in”), and more.
Recently released reports:
In the Interest of the Child? Child Rights and Homeworkers in Textile and Handicraft Supply Chains in Asia, by Save the Children, CCR CSR, and Nest
Clothing Guide, by Fibershed
Outsourced Responsibility? Response to Fatal Explosion by Chemical Giants, by Institute of Public & environmental Affairs (IPE)
In general news:
Finnish Government commits to mandatory human rights due diligence legislation
Cotton Egypt Association continues campaign on counterfeiters
Kingpins Show to name most sustainable offerings
US consumer spending remains unchanged over 30 years except for one thing: consumers can buy more clothes because they are getting cheaper
Will Chinese millennials buy sustainable goods?
Miami Fashion Week focuses on sustainability
An interview with a chemist about chemicals in the denim industry
In the supply chain:
Bangladesh: 200 garments vulnerable to fire in Gazipur; all Eid bonuses paid; ICCR releases statement on Accord’s continuation; government says RCC fully functional now
Cambodia: appeals court overturns convictions of six unionists
China: protest in shoe factory; report about rights of the child in homework supply chains released in Hong Kong
Mexico: unions have rising expectations under new government
Sri Lanka: garment factories providing women with source of employment, and pride
Vietnam: new report says all major lead firms in garments and footwear have adopted a policy commitment on human rights and ethics
Manufacturers in this issue include: Applied DNA (closes the loop on traceability for Egyptian Pima), Coats (launches BCI-certified thread), Colourtex, Samia, Covolan Têxtil and Ratti have all joined ZDHC, and more.
Sustainable fashion jobs: 8 new jobs listed (at America Today, Camira Fabrics, Decathlon China, undisclosed German retailer, Guess Europe, Selfridges and VF).
Quotes of the week:
“I believe Chinese millennials will pay more for sustainable goods.” Shaway Yeh, group style editorial director at Modern Media, and Founder of yehyehyeh (31 May).
“Just because something is made domestically doesn’t mean it’s being made ethically or sustainably.” Maria Stanley (31 May).
“We are living in an increasingly artificial, superficial and media-driven society and it is embarrassing to see how much of exactly the same denim thing is being produced and ends up in the stores.” Alberto de Conti (24 May).
“I don’t know if it is because of technical unawareness or hidden agenda, but way too many “opinion leaders” contribute way too confidently to the spreading of information that has way too little scientific ground.” Alberto de Conti (24 May).
By Stephen Frost, CUHK Business School, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
BRANDS & RETAILERS
LMVH joins ZDHC: “ZDHC is delighted to welcome some exciting new organisations to our fast-growing base of Contributors. The number of Contributors is rapidly approaching 150 as our global community expands each year. One of the latest to join is LVMH, a superb representative of the luxury sector and a company we are delighted to have on board” (03 Jun).
The nine ways Extinction Rebellion brought Bristol to a standstill this afternoon: “It all started at Primark with a die-in …” (01 Jun).
Neiman Marcus, H&M tempt young shoppers with used clothes, handbags: “Neiman Marcus, H&M and online luxury site Farfetch have all recently entered the resale industry to adapt to Americans' love of secondhand heels, handbags and dresses. They are looking for younger, environmentally conscious and aspirational luxury shoppers who want bargain prices on premium brands” (01 Jun).
Nike backlash: Brands must do better - not just say better: “Nike is under fire after it was revealed that its female athletes suffered pay cuts when they became pregnant. The headlines came just weeks after it released a new ad campaign promoting gender equality. The days when the word “purpose” was seen as a buzz word, only used by millennials and marketers, are gone. It has proven itself as a powerful business tool in an increasingly competitive world, allowing brands to connect with their customers, engage their employees and make the world a better place. But what happens when it goes wrong?” (31 May).
I tried shopping sustainably on Poshmark – Here’s what I learned: “in an effort to minimize my own personal contributions to this scary statistic [that microfibers make up 85% of human-made debris on shorelines], and help existing synthetics stay away from our food chain, I’m actively transitioning away from any apparel made from new synthetics. To get me going, I'm testing out Poshmark, a peer-to-peer shopping site that has received $153m in funding to-date and seems to sell the largest variety of second-hand clothing” (31 May).
How one lovely little label gets made in Delhi, India: “You could work in the fashion industry for decades without actually knowing how a garment is made. In fact, plenty of designers may not even know the granular details behind their own lines. They design a product, see the sample, and somewhere across town (or across the globe), it’s remade in multiples and shipped to stores. For a rising class of environmentally and socially conscious young minds, however, that lack of transparency is no longer okay; to them, improving the sketch-to-dress process is just as important as a great design, if not more so. It’s no coincidence that shoppers are simultaneously beginning to prioritize sustainability, too; in today’s day and age, pieces with a story have the greatest currency. Maria Stanley was ahead of this curve when she launched her small collection of easy, ethereal dresses and jumpsuits out of her Silverlake, Los Angles bungalow back in 2015” (31 May).
Benetton makes 100% sustainable cotton pledge by 2025: “By 2025, 100 percent of the cotton used by Benetton Group will be sustainable: organic, recycled or sourced from Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) farmers” (30 May).
Leggings company pays $84,000 after child labor law violations, firing whistleblower: “Leggings Live [operating as Legg-A-Licious] has paid a total of $84,048 after violating child labor laws and terminating the employee who reported the violations, according to the U.S. Department of Labor’s Wage and Hour Division” (29 May).
Levi Strauss Foundation re-ups support to vulnerable communities: “for the third consecutive year, the Levi Strauss Foundation is allocating $1.0 million to a Rapid Response Fund, which will support organizations that protect the civil liberties of highly vulnerable communities across the United States and abroad – including immigrants, refugees, the transgender community and religious minorities” (28 May).
NEWS & REPORTS
Finnish Government commits to HRDD legislation: “The new Government in Finland has committed to mandatory HRDD legislation at national and EU level. The Government’s programme (released in June 2019) has set the goal to adopt mHRDD [mandatory human rights due diligence] legislation. In particular, the programme says that (unofficial translation): “The government will conduct a study with the goal of adopting a mHRDD law. The law is based on a due diligence obligation that covers both domestic and transnational activities. The study will be conducted with employers’ associations, entrepreneurs associations and employee organizations, taking into consideration the position of SMEs". A similar goal is being promoted at the EU level, where the government commits to “explore the possibility of an EU-wide mHRDD law which takes into account companies of different sizes and global value chains”” (03 Jun).
Shifting the impact of our clothing: tips from the fibershed community: “If you’re not at the helm of a fashion company, it can be difficult to discern exactly how our individual actions are part of achieving progress and ameliorating the impacts of our second skin. In the Fibershed Clothing Guide, we share how the impact a garment is defined by three key elements: [choosing clothing, caring for it, and keeping it in functional use]” (03 Jun).
CEA continues its campaign on counterfeiters: “Cotton Egypt Association (CEA), the organisation behind Egyptian Cotton, has launched a further initiative to actively root out non-genuine goods from the supply chain. CEA has begun naming manufacturers who fail its rigorous accreditation scheme through a new ‘Black List’ on its website, and has suspended license of a towel manufacturer who failed the test” (01 Jun).
Kingpins Show to name most sustainable offerings: “In response to buyers and brands seeking guidance on sustainable resources at Kingpins Shows, show organisers have announced ‘Kingpins’ Most Sustainable Products’—a new initiative that will objectively vet and identify the top sustainable offerings on the show floor and act as a guide for buyers and brands searching for information on sustainable products” (01 Jun).
France plans to stop fashion brands from destroying unsold clothing. Will Canada follow? “French President Emmanuel Macron has a plan to outlaw the widespread practice of destroying unsold clothes and luxury goods. The move has raised the question of whether Canada and other countries will follow suit” (31 May).
US consumer spending hasn’t changed much in 30 years, with one exception: “Data from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics show that in 1987 US shoppers devoted about 5% of their discretionary spending to clothes. In 2017 it was about 2%. Younger shoppers tend to spend a bit more, but the overall trend has been consistent across age groups. What’s driving the decrease, though, isn’t consumers buying less clothing: Deloitte notes that the number of clothing items US shoppers are purchasing grew consistently over the period studied. Rather, clothes are getting cheaper because of pressure from “market forces,” the firm says” (31 May).
One question, three answers: are Chinese millennials willing to pay more for sustainable goods? “A vast number of reports state that Chinese millennials are ethical shoppers—that they would be okay with paying a bit more for a sustainable product. How true is this in today’s China, where the notion of sustainability is in its infancy?” (31 May).
At Miami Fashion Week, a focus on sustainability: “From leather tanning to fabric processing to "fast fashion," the fashion industry is not known for being eco-friendly. But at this year's Miami Fashion Week, which kicked off Thursday, fashionistas are talking about how to make clothing more environmentally conscious. Fashion experts, designers and celebrities are gathering in the Magic City to discuss the industry's latest innovations and take part in runway shows” (30 May).
Alberto de Conti: the chemist: “We interviewed one of the most important experts of chemistry in the denim industry to understand how the chemistry is going to change in the blue world. (24 May).
THE SUPPLY CHAIN
200 garment factories vulnerable to fire in Gazipur: “About 200 readymade garment factories in Gazipur are vulnerable to fire and the buildings they are housed in, lack adequate firefighting systems. After a number of fire incidents in the capital, the Gazipur Fire Service is identifying risky buildings and trying to take action against their owners but these moves are not sufficient” (02 Jun).
BGMEA president: Eid bonus given by 100% owners, May salary by 90%: “Around 90% apparel factory owners paid wages for the month of May, while all the factory owners paid Eid bonus ahead of Eid-ul-Fitr, said Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) President Rubana Huq on Sunday” (02 Jun).
ICCR’s statement on agreement for Accord’s continuance in Bangladesh: “On May 19, 2019 the Appellate Division of the Bangladesh Supreme Court accepted an agreement negotiated by the Accord on Fire and Building Safety (Accord) Steering Committee and the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) with the endorsement of the Government of Bangladesh. The agreement enables the Accord to operate in Bangladesh for one more year and provides for a BGMEA team to work closely with the Accord to learn the core functions of Accord operations. After 13 months a new structure will be established, the Ready-Made Garment (RMG) Sustainability Council, to implement all aspects of the Accord operations including inspections, remediation, safety training of workers, complaint mechanism and public reporting” (30 May).
Local factory remediator RCC now fully functional: Bangladesh: “State-run Remediation Coordination Cell (RCC), that is meant to take over the work of Accord after the agency’s exit, is now fully functional, Bangladesh government has said. State Minister for Labour and Employment Munnujan Sufian is fully confident that the RCC will successfully take up and continue the factory remediation work after the exit of Accord, the European agency for factory remediation that will stay beyond February 2020” (29 May).
Appeal Court overturns convictions of six unionists: “The Court of Appeal on Tuesday quashed the convictions of six union leaders found guilty of instigating violence over their roles in minimum wage protests that turned violent in 2013 and early 2014” (30 May).
Workers protest wage arrears owed by shoe factory in Quanzhou, Fujian: From CLB’s China Strike map (01 Jun).
Study: In the Interest of the Child? Child Rights and Homeworkers in Textile and Handicraft Supply Chains in Asia: “The aim of this study was to provide data on both the positive and negative impact of home-based work and work in small workshops on child rights and to identify best practices to improve child rights in such settings. The research was initiated by Save the Children and conducted by CCR CSR with the support of Nest” (31 May). [Ed’s note: you can see the full report here.]
Rising expectations and hopeful signs of change: “Mexico is going through an exciting period of transformation which holds hope for many that independent and democratic unions will have the opportunity to organise and grow, ushering in a new era of stronger collective bargaining and improved conditions. The new government of Andrés Manuel López Obrador recently approved an overhaul of the labour law which is intended to provide a new path forward for employee representation and bring an end to the dominance of “protection contracts”” (03 Jun).
Garment factories provide Sri Lankan women with a source of employment – and pride: “Northern Sri Lanka was hit hard economically by the country’s civil war, which ended in 2009. Now, garment factories in the area are providing local women with a chance at a stable financial future” (31 May).
More companies adopt human rights commitments: “All major lead firms in the garment, footwear and electronics industries in Việt Nam have adopted a policy commitment on human rights and ethical issues, a baseline study on the “Implementation of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights in the Garment, Footwear and Electronics Supply Chains in Việt Nam” has found” (29 May).
Four manufacturers join ZDHC: Colourtex (fibre dyes), Samia (pigment pastes), Covolan Têxtil (denim producer) and Ratti (textiles) have all joined ZDHC (03 Jun).
Yorkshire textile ‘boom’ for industry leaders: “The growth of Yorkshire’s booming modern textile industry has the potential to lead worldwide, industry leaders say, held back only by the search for new career entrants. The creative industry has seen huge global growth, the region’s manufacturers have told The Yorkshire Post, developing a reputation for quality while leading advances in technology” (02 Jun).
Applied DNA closes the loop on traceability for Egyptian Pima with genotyping assays for cotton authentication: “Applied DNA today announced that it has closed the loop on traceability for Egyptian Pima using DNA-based genotyping assays for cotton authentication. These assays have been used to verify fiber and will be extended to yarn, fabric and finished goods in an ongoing validation program. The Egyptian Pima developments join and expand a series of US Pima cotton assays performed within Applied DNA testing services and are based on work conducted over the past 3 years related to the validation of a known library of cotton cultivar standards” (31 May).
Coats launches BCI-certified thread: “Coats, the world’s leading industrial thread company, has launched two new 100 per cent cotton products, Tre Cerchi VeroTM and Tre Cerchi Vero+TM, both certified by the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) as being made from sustainable raw materials” (30 May).
SUSTAINABLE FASHION JOBS
[New listings or updated information marked with *]
Adidas: Senior Manager SEA, Environment - South Asia (Jakarta/Bangkok)
Adidas: Director SEA, Field Operation - North Asia (Guangzhou)
Adidas: Manager Sustainability A&G Materials (Guangzhou)
Adidas: Manager Sustainability Materials FW (Ho Chi Minh City)
Amazon: Social Responsibility, Senior Program Manager (Shenzhen, China)
Amazon: Japan Environmental Manager (Tokyo)
* America Today: Internship sustainability department (Corporate Social Responsibility) (Diemen)
Amer Sports: Performance Improvement Sustainability Specialist (Hong Kong)
ASOS: Ethical Trade Assistant (Hong Kong)
BSR: HERproject Associate (Hong Kong)
BSR: Manager, Supply Chain Sustainability (New York)
C&A Foundation: Data Analyst (Gurgaon)
* Camira Fabrics: PR & Communications Manager (Mirfield)
Canada Goose: Sustainability Programs Specialist (Toronto)
Canada Goose: Manager, Sustainability and Social Compliance Programs (Toronto)
Canada Goose: Sr. Manager, Corporate Sustainability (Toronto)
CDC: Job Quality Executive, Value Creation Strategies Team (London) [NB: although CDC is the UK’s development finance institution, it urges people with labour rights experience in apparel & textiles to apply.]
Center for Child Rights and Corporate Social Responsibility (CCR CSR): Social Worker (Shenzhen)
Chanel: Senior Compliance Manager (Shanghai)
* Decathlon China: Supplier Quality Engineer (Shenzhen)
Ethical Trading Initiative: Senior Advisor, Gender & Social Inclusion (London)
Ethical Trading Initiative: Membership Services Assistant (maternity cover) (London)
Ethical Trading Initiative: Assistant Strategic Lead (London)
Fair Labor Association: Social Compliance Program Manager (Washington, DC)
G-Star RAW: Intern GSRD Foundation (Amsterdam)
Gap: Operations Administrator, Supplier Sustainability (Hong Kong)
* German Retailer (undisclosed): Senior Global Sustainability Manager, Environment & Chemical (Furtwangen)
Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS): GOTS Public Procurement Specialist (EU) (Stuttgart)
Good Business Lab: Marketing and Partnerships Associate (Bengaluru/Delhi)
Good Business Lab: Data Associate (Bengaluru/Delhi)
Good Business Lab: Data Intern (Bengaluru/Delhi)
Good Business Lab: Research Associate (Bengaluru/Delhi)
GoodWeave: Senior Manager, Standards and Certification (Washington DC)
GoodWeave: Director of Communications (Washington DC)
GoodWeave: Senior Program Officer (Washington DC)
* Guess Europe: CSR Coordintor (Bioggio)
Gymshark: Sustainability Manager (Solihull)
W.L. Gore & Associates: APAC Sustainability Communication Leader - Fabrics Division (Hong Kong)
H&M: Sustainability Expert Industrial Relations and Wage (Yangon)
Herschel Supply Company: Product Quality & Compliance Manager (Vancouver)
Hop Lun: Sustainability Manager (Hong Kong)
Hudson’s Bay: Labour Relations Coordinator (Etobicoke)
International Labour Organisation: Programme Manager, Better Factories Cambodia (Phnom Penh)
Impactt: Marketing Manager (London)
Impactt: Principal Consultant (London)
Impactt: Project Officer (London)
Kenneth Cole: Corporate Social Responsibility Manager (New York)
Kering: Ready to Wear Materials Research & Sustainability Specialist (Novara)
Kmart Australia: Community Relations Advisor (Melbourne)
Marc Fisher Footwear: Compliance Coordinator (Greenwich, CT)
Mint Velvet: CSR Coordinator (High Wycombe, UK)
Nakd: Corporate Social Responsibility Internship (Gothenburg)
New Era Cap: Senior Manager, Global Social Compliance (Buffalo, NY)
Nike: Sustainability Engagement Manager (Beaverton, OR)
Nike: Director of Supplier Relationship Management – Supply Chain (Beaverton, OR)
Pandora: Sustainability Specialist (Copenhagen)
Patagonia: Head of Supply Chain Environmental Responsibility (Ventura, CA)
Politix (Country Road Group): Social, PR and Events Manager (Melbourne)
REI: Senior Administrative Assistant, Brand Stewardship & Impact (Kent, WA)
Reset Carbon: Senior Consultant – Corporate Sustainability (Hong Kong)
Samil Vina International: Compliance, CSR (Tây Ninh)
* Selfridges: Senior Sustainability Manager (London)
Superdry: Ethical Sourcing Assistant (Hong Kong)
Sustainable Apparel Coalition: Executive Director (San Francisco)
Sustainable Apparel Coalition: Senior Manager, Higg Brand & Retail Tool (San Francisco, New York, Amsterdam, or Hong Kong)
Sustainable Apparel Coalition: Project Manager (Irvine, CA)
Sustainable Apparel Coalition: Senior Manager of Higg Facility Tools (San Francisco, New York, Amsterdam, or Hong Kong)
Sustainable Apparel Coalition: Senior Manager of Verification (San Francisco, New York, Amsterdam, or Hong Kong)
Sustainable Apparel Coalition: Senior Manager, Public Affairs (Amsterdam)
Tommy Hilfiger: Communications Manager Sustainability (Amsterdam)
Uniqlo (Thailand): Sustainability Officer (Bangkok)
University of Leeds: Research Fellow in Sustainable Materials and Renewable Fibres (Leeds)
* VF: Sustainable Operations Manager, Bangladesh and India (Dhaka)
* VF: Sustainability Analyst, Global Materials Supply (Hong Kong)
VF: Sustainable Operations Manager, North East Asia (Shanghai).
VF: Manager, Worker Rights (Hong Kong)
VF: Specialist, Supply Chain Sustainability (Shanghai)
Wearable Collections: Drivers, Route Helpers and Market Coordinators (New York)
CONFERENCES & SEMINARS
[New listings or updated information marked with *]
05 June, Webinar: Transparency: Opportunities, Obstacles & Outlook 2019: “The apparel industry is under mounting pressure to increase the level of transparency into its products and processes. Led by savvy consumers and fuelled by a handful of vocal competitors in the space, it’s becoming expected for fashion firms to be able to verify what’s happening in their supply chains.” From Sourcing Journal and Cotton Incorporated.
10 June, Online course: Fashion’s Future and the Sustainable Development Goals: “explore the fashion industry’s impact on people and planet, what the Sustainable Development Goals are, and how they are intrinsically linked.” From Fashion Revolution.
10 June, Webinar: Journey from Sustainable to Organic + Regenerative Cotton Production Systems: “in-depth webinar on regenerative and organic farming issues, what life-cycle analysis’ (LCAs) do and what LCA’s don’t tell us and also explore a discussion on the benefits and challenges of adopting and delivering positive impacts in cotton production systems.” By Textile Exchange.
10 – 12 June, London: Ethical Corporation’s 18th Responsible Business Summit Europe: “It’s time to Lead: Innovate, Engage and Collaborate.”
12 June, Northampton, UK: 1 Day Chemical Compliance and Product Safety Training Course: “On this chemical course, our in-house chemical expert will guide you through the various legislations and chemicals in a simple step-by-step process, ensuring that you are aware of your obligation and how to comply.” (For the leather industry.)
12 – 13 June, Bangkok: Responsible Business & Human Rights Forum 2019: “[A] multi-stakeholder event addressing an array of priority issues under the Responsible Business Conduct and Business and Human Rights Agendas.”
12 – 13 June, Brussels: Chemical Watch Expo 2019: Global Chemical Regulations: “An international event with a programme of workshops to address important regulatory issues around the world across six streams.”
17 June, Webinar: Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)- Screening Protocol for Cotton & Textiles: “Textile Exchange, in partnership with the Organic Cotton Accelerator (OCA), is pleased to present this webinar as part of our continued focus on improving integrity focuses on the recently delivered international reference protocol for GMO-screening in cotton and textiles.”
18 – 20 June, Minneapolis, USA: Circularity 19: “Circularity 19 will bring together more than 500 thought leaders and practitioners to define and accelerate the circular economy.”
24 June, Webinar: 2025 Sustainable Cotton Challenge: Review and Brand Perspective: “review the findings from the first (2018) 2025 Sustainable Cotton Challenge report and learn from the successful partnerships between Cotton Connect and Lindex.”
27 June, Webinar: Discover how to drive success with transparency: “Work in fashion and want to learn how to set a strategy for your transparency journey?”
22 June, Barcelona: Planet Textiles 2019: “The 10th edition of Planet Textiles will be a seminal event on sustainability in the textile manufacturing sector and will see an unrivalled gathering of experts from the entire fashion value chain.”
09 July, Webinar: Biosynthetics E-Learning Series Part 2: “Biosynthetics can play an important role in replacing fossil-based resources with renewable feedstock. At the same time, there are various sustainability challenges also associated with the use of renewable feedstock.”
08 September, Dhaka, Bangladesh: GOTS Bangladesh Seminar 2019: “The theme of this year´s seminar is ‘Connecting for Success’. In 2018, Bangladesh reached second position (after India) in terms of GOTS certified facilities in the country. This growth trend showcases the commitment of the Bangladeshi textile industry to not only use organic fibres, but also to environmental and social compliances. Fire and Building Safety are included in GOTS criteria and the country has made significant progress in all these areas.” Speaking opportunities available: contacts at link.
09 – 10 October, San Diego: The Responsible Business Summit West 2019: “The Responsible Business Summit West focuses on what business needs to do to show leadership on key social and environmental challenges and opportunities.”
15 – 18 October: Vancouver: Textile Exchange Sustainability Conference: Driving impact through integrity and preferred fiber & materials.
23 – 24 October: Amsterdam: European Textile Polyester Summit 2019: “an insight into the European polyester market and its drivers and developments, as well as focus on feedstock availability and sustainability challenges.”
04 – 05 November: Stockholm: Transforming Products for the Circular Economy: “This two-day forum will feature leading innovators, product designers, manufacturers and brands using Cradle to Cradle Certified to design and make safe, healthy materials and products for the circular economy.”
05 November: Dhaka, Bangladesh: Sustainable Apparel Forum: 2nd edition of a forum facilitated by the Bangladesh Apparel Exchange.
12 – 14 November, San Jose, California: BSR Conference: Note: this link is only to sign up for updates; registration will begin in May.
11 March, London: Drapers Sustainable Fashion 2020: “[With a] focus on collaborating for change within the fashion retail industry.”
Disclaimer: The Fashion Sustainability Week in Review (FSWIR) is a twice-weekly roundup of sustainability news items relevant to the fashion, apparel, textile and related industries. The views and opinions expressed in the FSWIR by individual authors and/or media outlets cited do not necessarily reflect the position of GoBlu International or any individual associated with the company.