Brands in this issue include: American Eagle Outfitters (carbon neutral by 2030), Asics (invests in Spanish textile developer), Farm to Home (GOTS certified launch), Forever 21 (files for Chapter 11), H&M (wants more customers to recycle), Levi Strauss & Co. (funds climate innovations), Levi Strauss, Marks & Spencer and VF (join pilot scheme to pay garment workers digitally), Primark (extends sustainable cotton sourcing programme), Rent the Runway (customer anger over cancellations), Sainsbury’s (tells suppliers to cover cost of no-deal tariffs), and more.

Recently released reports:

In general news:

  • Look and feel good: How tech could save the fashion industry

  • Consumers want to buy sustainably—they just don’t know how

  • Blue Jeans Go Green/PhytoGen partnership renewed for 2020

  • Keeping the thread alive at a Vietnam silk village

  • Khadi: The future of sustainable fashion

  • British manufacturing: back in fashion

  • Billionaire fashion CEO Bernard Arnault says Greta Thunberg has ‘surrendered completely to catastrophism’ and is demoralising for young people

  • Can clothing be recycled? How to give your old clothes new life

  • Sustainability is a tectonic shift in fashion, here is how brands can adapt

  • Welcome to season 2 of Drive: Stories of sustainable entrepreneurship

  • What really goes into creating sustainable, size-inclusive fashion?

  • Meet Redress 2019 Winner Maddie Williams

  • Global chemicals framework would ‘benefit greatly’ from industry schemes

  • Fashion brands are claiming to be ‘carbon neutral’ – but is it greenwashing?

  • My eXXpedition to investigate plastic pollution in the oceans

  • Indian cotton company to invest $7 million in Zambia

In the supply chain:

  • Mauritius: Bangladeshi workers in Mauritius increase fivefold in 14 years

  • Vietnam: scant attention to managing chemicals

Manufacturers in this issue include: Birla Cellulose (to halve water use by 2025), Cordenka (receives biodegradability certification), Elevate Textiles (announces sustainability commitments), Mi Terro (turns milk into clothing), and more.

Sustainable fashion jobs: 8 new jobs listed this issue (at Allbirds, AllSaints, Nike, Patagonia, Salomon and Vetta Brands).

Quotes of the week:

  • “Of the two opposing forces: the desire to be sustainable and the desire for fashion at a low price, which one is set to win in the long term? To understand this, we need to look at the two main entities that can affect real change: mass market consumers and big companies.” Sophia Matveeva (27 Sep).

  • “Nearly half (44 percent) of consumers don’t think disposable water bottles are made using ingredients derived from crude oil and 38 percent were surprised to learn that they are.” According to a new survey from Genomatica (24 Sep).

By Stephen Frost, CUHK Business School, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.


American Eagle announces sustainability targets: “Retailer American Eagle Outfitters Inc (AEO) has unveiled new sustainability goals which include becoming carbon neutral by 2030” (30 Sep).

Rival integrity initiatives compete in wool industry: “The new head of Australia’s first industry-owned wool integrity scheme, says it’s already gaining traction among sheep farmers and other industry players. Dr Paul Swan, a former research chief with the Australian Wool Innovation (AWI) who has been appointed CEO of ‘SustainaWOOL’ by its new owner, the Australian Wool Exchange (AWEX), also says he has no concerns about any conflicts of interest regarding ownership or his own appointment” (30 Sep).

Birla Cellulose to halve water use by 2025: “Textile manufacturer Birla Cellulose has set a target of reducing its water use, compared to 2015 levels, by 50 per cent by the year 2025” (30 Sep).

Cordenka receives biodegradability certification: “German textiles manufacturer Cordenka has received certification from TÜV Rheinland confirming the biodegradability of its cellulose-based natural fibres” (30 Sep).

Levi’s further funds climate innovations: “Apparel brand Levi Strauss & Co., has announced that its current crop of ‘Collaboratory’ fellows will be granted investment to the sum of US$380,000 as it looks to scale up sustainable solutions that combat climate change” (27 Sep).

Success in tackling slavery among garment workers: “A five year programme to eradicate bonded labour among workers in India - including garment factory employees - has succeeded in reducing modern slavery, according to a new report” (27 Sep).

Brands join pilot scheme to pay garment workers digitally: “Levi Strauss, Marks & Spencer, and the VF Corporation have joined forces with Mastercard in a pilot scheme to pay garment workers digitally in Egypt and Cambodia” (27 Sep).


Sainsbury’s tells suppliers to cover cost of no-deal tariffs: “Suppliers to J Sainsbury have been told by the supermarkets group that they must bear the brunt of European Union import tariffs if there is a no-deal Brexit” (30 Sep).

Forever 21 files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection: “In bankruptcy filings, the company revealed that it owes between $1 billion and $10 billion to more than 100,000 creditors…” (30 Sep).

H&M wants more customers to recycle their clothes: “Retailers, especially fast-fashion chains such as H&M, are under pressure to lead the way on sustainability. And consumers want to know more about the life cycle of their purchases. H&M started collecting used garments from its customers in 2013, partnering with I:Collect, a Swiss reuse and recycling logistics company that picks up clothing and shoes in more than 60 countries. H&M moves the items to distribution centers. I:CO buys the merchandise and transports it to a partner recycling facility” (27 Sep).

Rent the Runway customers are mad as hell because their gowns aren’t arriving in time: “Rent the Runway’s customers are mad as hell because their outfits aren’t showing up on time. And they have a right to be angry. Rent the Runway made a name for itself by renting out gowns for fancy events, and the entire business model requires that dresses show up before the event. But over the last few weeks, customers have been reporting that their orders have been cancelled at the last minute, leaving them scrambling to make alternative plans” (27 Sep).

“Ecolifestyle” pioneer Marci Zaroff launches GOTS certified organic Farm to Home luxury lifestyle brand on QVC: “Internationally acclaimed “Ecolifestyle” visionary, entrepreneur and author Marci Zaroff is proud to announce the launch of her new GOTS certified organic cotton, luxury lifestyle brand Farm to Home, which debuts this week on QVC. Consumers worldwide are demanding more transparency from the brands they buy and support—including food, beauty, clothing and home textiles” (26 Sep).

Asics invests in Spanish textile developer: “Japanese sportswear firm Asics has taken a stake in Pyrates Smart Fabrics, a Spanish startup that develops advanced and responsible fabrics, through its Asics Ventures Corporation subsidiary” (26 Sep).

Primark extends sustainable cotton sourcing programme: “Fast-fashion giant Primark has announced that it has expanded its Sustainable Cotton Programme into Pakistan, one of the key sourcing countries for cotton, one year on from the initiative’s launch of cotton products using sustainable cotton from India” (25 Sep).


Look and feel good: How tech could save the fashion industry: ““Fashion is a high volume, low value, waste stream. There's a lot of it and it’s worth nothing,” says Mart Drake-Knight, co-founder of Teemill, a UK startup that manufactures and recycles t-shirts using renewable energy and technology to minimize waste” (30 Sep).

Consumers want to buy sustainably—they just don’t know how: “A new study finds that while 95% of people in the U.S. want to make sustainable purchases, most of them don’t know what to look for to determine if something is, in fact, sustainable” (30 Sep).

Blue Jeans Go Green/PhytoGen partnership renewed for 2020: “PhytoGen, the U.S. cottonseed brand of Corteva Agriscience, and Cotton Incorporated’s Blue Jeans Go Green denim recycling program have renewed their partnership for 2020. Building on a successful first year of the joint promotion program, PhytoGen will again organize denim collection drives at industry events across the Cotton Belt to help promote cotton’s sustainability and reduce textile waste” (30 Sep).

Keeping the thread alive at a Vietnam silk village: “Cocoons bob in boiling water as silk is rapidly teased out, spinning on reels skilfully operated by women in Vietnam's Co Chat village, where households have been making thread for more than a century” (29 Sep).

Khadi: The future of sustainable fashion: “Khadi’s organic and zero carbon footprint nature allows us to believe that a lot can be done combining the different natural fibers of our country and by keeping the original essence of Khadi and still making it fit for the modern society” (29 Sep).

British manufacturing: back in fashion: ““The idea that simple, manufactured goods need to be made in low-labour-cost countries is no longer valid because automation and technology have changed the game. We won’t return to the industrial economy of the past, where we had 1.5 million people making this stuff, but we could create a serious number of sustainable jobs. Engineers to run advanced manufacturing equipment, IT specialists to create the software that runs all this – it’s not necessarily people who know how to make clothes””(29 Sep).

Billionaire fashion CEO Bernard Arnault says Greta Thunberg has ‘surrendered completely to catastrophism’ and is demoralising for young people: “French business magnate Bernard Arnault, 70, has described climate activist Greta Thunberg as ‘demoralising for young people’. The billionaire Chief Executive of LVMH made the comments while speaking at his luxury giant LVMH’s sustainability event earlier this week. Arnault said that while Greta was a ‘dynamic young girl,’ she has ‘surrendered completely to catastrophism’” (28 Sep).

Can clothing be recycled? How to give your old clothes new life: “We know that fast fashion is an unsustainable apparel-making method and that whenever possible, we should choose to buy secondhand clothing instead. But what about the clothes that we already have — the stuff we don’t want to wear anymore or maybe have outgrown? Can clothing be recycled? If clothing is recyclable, then how do you go about recycling it?” (27 Sep).

Sustainability is a tectonic shift in fashion, here is how brands can adapt: “Sustainability is the fashion industry’s latest trend. Brands, retailers and designers are pledging their hearts to the environment and to protecting their workforces, and yet the industry remains the second largest polluter in the world. The horrendous working conditions and illegally low wages at Boohoo’s factories have not stopped the company’s profits from growing, or consumers wanting their fast fashion” (27 Sep).

Welcome to season 2 of Drive: Stories of sustainable entrepreneurship: “In a new season of our entrepreneurship podcast series, we hear from six of fashion’s most dynamic sustainable entrepreneurs — AllbirdsTim Brown, Eileen Fisher, Everlane’s Michael Preysman, Reformation’s Yael Aflalo, Ganni’s and Noah’s founders – to hear what it takes to make successful businesses sustainable” (27 Sep).

What really goes into creating sustainable, size-inclusive fashion? “In a world of performative activism, Birdsong is one of the few brands delivering on its promises. In just five years, the women-owned boutique (Sophie Slater and Sarah Beckett founded the label in 2014, Susanna Wen has since come on board as the in-house designer) has created a small, close-knit team of makers across different charities and community groups. These artisans (each of whom is paid a fair, living wage) use their skills to create beautifully, sustainably made capsule collections which not only look the part but also generate profit for good causes – 50% is invested straight back into women’s organisations, whose funding streams have largely been cut under austerity” (27 Sep).

Meet Redress 2019 Winner Maddie Williams: “Every September, while major fashion weeks unveil the usual facade of glitter and champagne, a unique kind of catwalk unfolds in Hong Kong, to champion sustainability and highlight revolutionary approaches to fashion’s waste problem. The Redress Design Award offers a career catalyst to an outstanding designer, but it also serves to educate a new generate of socially conscious and eco-literate creatives.  Previous winners have included Kévin Germanier and Tess Whitfort. Below, we hear from the 2019 winner, Maddie Williams, who spoke with Fashion Revolution about her experience in the awards scheme and her vision for the future of fashion” (26 Sep).

Global chemicals framework would ‘benefit greatly’ from industry schemes: “Standards and certifications ‘essential’ for achieving real progress, says Switzerland … The paper, which explores how private standards, labels and certification mechanisms can play a positive role in a post-2020 framework, focuses on schemes established in the textiles industry. This is because, “as one of the most polluting downstream users of the chemicals industry... the textile/apparel/footwear sector has acknowledged its responsibility through the proliferation of voluntary initiatives to improve the inputs, processes and outputs for safer and more sustainable textiles”. It says that a post-2020 framework would benefit from a "smart mix" of legislation and regulations that support enforcement of safer chemistry, with voluntary initiatives from downstream sector players, such as the textile industry’s ZDHC, Bluesign and Oekotex” (26 Sep).

Fashion brands are claiming to be ‘carbon neutral’ – but is it greenwashing? “We talked to scientists, environmentalists and brands about the controversial approach to sustainability that labels like Gucci, Everlane and Reformation are investing in … If climate change is caused by releasing gases like carbon into the atmosphere, then carbon neutral is the best thing a brand can do, right? In theory, yes. Unfortunately, getting there isn't quite as straightforward as brands often make it sound” (26 Sep).

My eXXpedition to investigate plastic pollution in the oceans: “Working with Pachacuti, the hat brand I founded over two decades ago, and at Fashion Revolution over the past six years, has brought together the latter two areas in many ways, but now I am incredibly excited to be able to draw all three of these strands together. In February and March 2020, I will be setting sail with eXXpedition to investigate plastic pollution and toxics in our oceans. Almost 10,000 women from around the world applied to take part in the two year voyage and I feel incredibly fortunate to have been selected to crew on the leg from the Galapagos to Easter Island” (25 Sep).

Indian cotton company to invest $7 million in Zambia: “Zambian Vice President Inonge Wina recently held talks with India’s Shree Vagmi Cotton Ltd, which will invest $7 million in the next three years to build a factory to process cotton lint. The company has acquired a 26-acre land in Mwembeshi area of Chibombo district in the Central Province and would engage 23,000 cotton farmers in the country in two years” (25 Sep).



Bangladeshi workers in Mauritius increase fivefold in 14 years: “Labour migration from Bangladesh to Mauritius increased fivefold in the past 14 years projecting more job demands in the coming days, according to Bureau of Manpower, Employment and Training … About 24,000 workers from Bangladesh were currently employed in textile industries, construction sites and bakeries in Mauritius” (28 Sep).


Scant attention to managing chemicals in Vietnam: “Despite consuming a large amount of chemicals, most Vietnamese textile and garment firms pay little attention to chemical management, leading to passive reaction during any accident, the ministry of natural resources and environment said recently. As most companies are small- and medium-sized, their focus on environmental management has been minimal” (25 Sep).


This Los Angeles-based sustainable fashion start-up turns milk into clothing. Yes, you read that right: “Founded in late 2018, sustainable fashion start-up Mi Terro creates usable products with materials that would otherwise go to waste. Their most recent product is the Milk Tee, which is produced with excess milk that would otherwise be dumped” (29 Sep).

Hem Mills Inc. the largest hemp mill in the United States to debut at Ifai Orlando tradeshow: “The global leader in hemp product and development Hem Mills Inc. to debut at this year's Industrial Fabrics Association International Expo (IFAI) tradeshow in Orlando as a natural strong option to typical synthetic chemical webbings” (29 Sep).

Elevate Textiles announces sustainability commitments: “Elevate Textiles, a global provider of advanced, high quality products and mission critical textile solutions, announced today its commitment to achieve specific sustainability targets by the year 2025 across its portfolio brands including American & Efird, Burlington, Cone Denim, Gütermann and Safety Components. Today’s announcement builds on commitments already established by Elevate brands and establishes common goals across the global enterprise” (24 Sep).


[New listings or updated information marked with *]  

Ace & Tate: Corporate Social Responsibility Intern (Amsterdam)

* Allbirds: Manager, Materials Innovation (Footwear) (San Francisco, CA)

* AllSaints: Corporate Responsibility Manager (London)

Amaro: Sustainability & Social Impact Lead (São Paulo)

Amazon: Social Responsibility, Senior Program Manager (Shenzhen, China)

Ann Inc: CSR, Strategy and Communications (New York)

Arcadia Group: Ethical Trading Manager (London)

Asos: Ethical Trade Assistant (London)

Bestseller: CSR/Sustainability Coordinator (Brande)

C&A Sourcing: Environmental Project Manager (Hong Kong)

C&A Sourcing: Chemicals Project Manager (Hong Kong)

C&A Foundation: Data Analyst (Gurgaon)

Canada Goose: Manager Fabrics Research, Development, Sustainability (Toronto)

Center for Child Rights and Corporate Social Responsibility (CCR CSR): Social Worker (Shenzhen)

Cotton On: Environmental Project Lead (Geelong)

Elevate: Sustainability Analyst (Hong Kong)

G-Star RAW: Intern Corporate Strategy (Amsterdam)

Good Weave: Director, Apparel and Fashion Jewelry (Washington DC)

Guess: Apparel Testing & Environmental Sustainability Specialist (Bioggio)

H&M: Country - Sustainability Developer (Environment) (Guangzhou)

Hugo Boss: Manager Corporate Sustainability Reporting (Stuttgart)

ISKO: CSR Marketing Expert (London)

Kmart Australia: Human Rights Manager (Melbourne)

Levi Strauss: LEAN Project Manager Distribution (Unna)

Levi Strauss: Manager, Global Product Strategy (San Francisco, CA)

Lidl: Compliance Administrator (Hong Kong)

Lululemon: Director, Chemicals & Materials Sustainability (Vancouver)

Macy’s: Vice President, Sustainability (New York)

Michael Kors: Manager, Corporate Social Responsibility (New York)

* Nike: Sustainability Manufacturing and Sourcing Internship (Beaverton, OR)

* Nike: Graduate Sustainability Innovation Internship (Beaverton, OR)

* Nike: Strategic Planning Manager, Global Sustainability (Beaverton, OR)

Nike: Sustainabilty Professional II (Jakarta)

Nike: Environmental Health & Safety Manager - Air MI (Phoenix, AZ)

Nike: Community Impact Director Latam (Mexico City)

* Patagonia: Environmental Responsibility Associate (Ventura, CA)

Pegas Nonwovens: Global Safety, Regulatory and Sustainability Specialist (Znojmo)

prAna: Sourcing Analyst (San Diego, CA)

PVH: Manager, Environmental Sustainability & Product Stewardship (New York)

Ralph Lauren: Director, Sustainability (New York)

Ralph Lauren: Associate, Global Employee Communications & Philanthropy (New York)

QuizRR: Internal Sales Representative (Stockholm)

REI: Director, Communications and Public Affairs (Kent WA)

* Salomon: Sustainability Program Manager (Annecy)

SML: Manager – Global Sustainability (Hong Kong)

Solidarity Center: Senior Specialist for Organizing – Trade Union Strengthening Department (Phnom Penh)

Steve Madden: Social Compliance Manager (Long Island City, NY)

Sustainable Apparel coalition: Operations Coordinator, Europe (Amsterdam)

Tommy Hilfiger: Communications Manager Sustainability (Amsterdam)

Turnahead: Sustainability Manager (Bangladesh)

Uniqlo: Sustainability Officer (Bangkok)

University of Leeds: Research Fellow in Sustainable Materials and Renewable Fibres (Leeds)

Velcro Companies: EHS Manager (Somersworth, NH)

* Vetta Brands: CSR & Sustainability Analyst (Columbus, OH)

Walmart: Senior Manager, Corporate Social Responsibility (Beijing)

Wardrobe: Director of Operations (New York)

WSR: Director of Outreach and Communications (New York)

ZDHC: Legal Intern (Amsterdam)

CONFERENCES & SEMINARS                                        

[New listings or updated information marked with *]  

09 October, Northampton, UK: Leather Training Course: “The improved understanding you will gain from this leather course will help you to avoid problems when sourcing and specifying leather products as well as providing confidence when dealing with suppliers, manufacturers, and tanners.”

09 – 10 October, San Diego: The Responsible Business Summit West 2019: “The Responsible Business Summit West focuses on what business needs to do to show leadership on key social and environmental challenges and opportunities.”

10 October, Northampton, UK: Chemical Compliance and Product Safety Training Course: “On this chemical course, our in-house chemical expert will guide you through the various legislations and chemicals in a simple step-by-step process, ensuring that you are aware of your obligation and how to comply.”

10 – 15 October, Los Angeles: Vegan Fashion Week: “This event is designed to empower conscious brands and humans globally with an elevated platform for achievement, inspiration, and discovery.”

11 October, Coimbatore: Top Ten Best Practices – ZDHC: Training by Sustainable Textile Solutions (STS) – Those interested in attending should contact:

15 – 18 October: Vancouver: Textile Exchange Sustainability Conference: Driving impact through integrity and preferred fiber & materials.

16 October, Delhi: Top Ten Best Practices – ZDHC: Training by Sustainable Textile Solutions (STS) – Those interested in attending should con tact:

18 October, London: Kingpin Transformers: Ed: “the first of what we hope will be an annual educational conference focusing on fashion students who are still at university and are about to enter the wider fashion industry.”

18 October, New York: Decoded Future: “Decoded Future 2019 will have an underlying theme: sustainability and social good.”

21 – 25 October, Turin: International Labour Standards and Corporate Social Responsibility: “course offered by the International Training Centre of the ILO.”

22 October, Amsterdam: Kingpins Transformers: Catalysts: “At our Catalysts edition of Kingpins Transformers, we will spotlight the members of the denim supply chain focused on redefining the rules for the future.”

23 October, Dhaka: Higg FEM 3.0 training: Training by Sustainable Textile Solutions (STS) – Those interested in attending should contact:

23 – 24 October: Amsterdam: European Textile Polyester Summit 2019: “an insight into the European polyester market and its drivers and developments, as well as focus on feedstock availability and sustainability challenges.”

29 October, Shanghai: Top Ten Best Practices – ZDHC: Training by Sustainable Textile Solutions (STS) – Those interested in attending should contact:

29 – 30 October: Washington DC: “Brands Taking Stands – What’s next?”: “bringing corporate leaders together on a fast-paced main stage, keenly focused on the ‘why’ and ‘how’ behind their thinking.”

30 October, Istanbul: Top Ten Best Practices – ZDHC: Training by Sustainable Textile Solutions (STS) – Those interested in attending should con tact:

01 November: Hong Kong: Crisis Management & Modern Slavery: “[The Mekong Club’s] intensive 3.5-hour workshop will equip you with the right tools to anticipate and prepare for a crisis, and teach you how to use crisis management principles effectively. A realistic modern slavery crisis scenario will be used so participants can practice these principles.”

04 – 05 November: Stockholm: Transforming Products for the Circular Economy: “This two-day forum will feature leading innovators, product designers, manufacturers and brands using Cradle to Cradle Certified to design and make safe, healthy materials and products for the circular economy.”

05 November: Dhaka, Bangladesh: Sustainable Apparel Forum: 2nd edition of a forum facilitated by the Bangladesh Apparel Exchange.

07 November, Chennai: 1 Day Chemical Compliance & Product Safety in the Supply Chain: “Manufacturers and suppliers who attend this one-day course can understand the importance of RSL and MRSL obligations for their business, key restricted substances and topical global legislation, as well as best practice guidance for implementation of MRSL compliance to satisfy the leather, footwear and apparel industries.”

12 – 14 November, San Jose, California: BSR Conference: “The 27th annual BSR Conference, one of the longest-running and most prestigious sustainable business events. This year, we will explore the transformations that are creating a new climate for business and help to pave the way for companies, people, and planet to thrive in this era of rapid change.”

13 November, New York: Leather, Compliance & Sustainability New York Conference (organised by Eurofins | BLC and held at Tapestry HQ): “Calling all brands and retailers: How to ensure your brand is compliant with chemistry legislation and can take advantage of the opportunity of adding value through sustainability.”

14 November, Brussels: Ready, Set, Substitute it Now!ChemSec invites you to a full-day event, which will include messages from policy makers, inspiration from progressive companies and hard facts from scientists, as well as panel discussions and workshops on how to best substitute hazardous chemicals.”

20 November, Delhi: Higg FEM 3.0 training: Training by Sustainable Textile Solutions (STS) – Those interested in attending should contact:

20 November, Hong Kong: Half Day Sustainability in the Leather Supply Chain Training Course: This half-day leather sustainability course covers key aspects of traceability and material sourcing, chemical management risks, environmental impacts and stewardship, NGO activity and the leather life cycle.”

22 November, Coimbatore: Higg FEM 3.0 training: Training by Sustainable Textile Solutions (STS) – Those interested in attending should contact:

26 November, Dhaka: Higg FEM 3.0 training: Training by Sustainable Textile Solutions (STS) – Those interested in attending should contact:

03 December, Northampton, UK: Leather Training Course: “The improved understanding you will gain from this leather course will help you to avoid problems when sourcing and specifying leather products as well as providing confidence when dealing with suppliers, manufacturers, and tanners.”

11 – 12 December, Istanbul: Chemical Management - ZDHC: Training by Sustainable Textile Solutions (STS) – Those interested in attending should contact:

11 – 12 February, Cologne: 1st International Conference on Cellulose Fibres: “New International Conference on Cellulose Fibres, the fastest growing fibre group in textiles, the largest investment sector in the bio-based economy and the solution for avoiding microplastics.”

11 March, London: Drapers Sustainable Fashion 2020: “[With a] focus on collaborating for change within the fashion retail industry.”

(Photo by Fabio Grandis, CCO)

Disclaimer: The Fashion Sustainability Week in Review (FSWIR) is a twice-weekly roundup of sustainability news items relevant to the fashion, apparel, textile and related industries. The views and opinions expressed in the FSWIR by individual authors and/or media outlets cited do not necessarily reflect the position of GoBlu International or any individual associated with the company.